The research of the Centre of Excellence NANODIAM focuses on study and production of new materials with intentionally modified surfaces, exhibiting variety of properties designed for controllable bioactivity. The expected area of the present and future applications of our achievements is directly combined with orthopedic surgery, artificial organs implantation and other biomedical implementations, including new surgery tools along with diagnostic tests. There is the nanodiamonds surface structure modified with the goal to reach the highest bio-, hemo- and thrombo-compatibility that are continuously monitored in our laboratory. This book consists of works of the authors that are leading representatives on the international level in the domains concerning plasma techniques, carbon layers ? their production and applications. The authors' considerations sum up, show the newest achievements, or are contemplations from this field of research.